PASADENA, Calif.--One of the big problems in biology is keeping track of the proteins a cell makes, without having to kill the cell. Now, researchers from the California Institute of Technology have developed a general approach that measures protein production in living cells.
Reporting in the July 26 issue of the journal Chemistry and Biology, Caltech chemistry professor Richard Roberts and his collaborators describe their new method for examining "protein expression in vivo that does not require transfection, radiolabeling, or the prior choice of a candidate gene." According to Roberts, this work should have great impact on both cell biology and the new field of proteomics, which is the study of all the proteins that act in living systems.
"This work is a result of chemical biology—chemists, and biologists working together to gain new insights into a huge variety of applications, including cancer research and drug discovery," says Roberts.
"Generally, there is a lack of methods to determine if proteins are made in response to some cellular stimuli and what those specific proteins are," Roberts says. "These are two absolutely critical questions, because the behavior of a living cell is due to the cast of protein characters that the cell makes."
Facing this problem, the Roberts team tried to envision new methods that would enable them to decipher both how much and what particular protein a cell chooses to make at any given time. They devised a plan to trick the normal cellular machinery into labeling each newly made protein with a fluorescent tag.
The result is that cells actively making protein glow brightly on a microscope slide, much like a luminescent Frisbee on a dark summer night. Importantly, these tools can also be used to determine which particular protein is being made, in much the same way that a bar code identifies items at a supermarket checkout stand.
To demonstrate this method, the team used mouse white blood cells that are very similar to cells in the human immune system. These cells could be tagged to glow various colors, and the tagged proteins later separated for identification.
Over the next decade, scientists hope to better understand the 30,000 to 40,000 different proteins inside human cells. The authors say they are hopeful that this new approach will provide critical information for achieving that goal.
The title of the paper is "A General Approach to Detect Protein Expression In Vivo Using Fluorescent Puromycin Conjugates." For more information, contact Heidi Hardman at firstname.lastname@example.org.